沒頭腦的摩天大樓

我活着,真的。

about Robinson Crusoe 

2007/06/14
Thu. 21:20

今天把最近研究鲁滨逊的东西贴一下。希望对今后对它有共同兴趣的朋友有点帮助。


在这里需要指出的几点是:


1. 以前一直认为鲁滨逊漂流记是虚构小说,但其实并不是这样。鲁滨逊漂流记本身是根据Alexander Selkirk的人生经历所改变的小说。在小说出版发行之时,并不是以虚构故事的形式出现,而是以“真实人物Robinson Crusoe”的冒险经历向大家展示一个奇异的故事。


2. 鲁滨逊漂流记不仅仅是描写主人公如何自食其力险中求胜积极向上的精神,其中还参杂了很多与宗教以及殖民主义相关的内容。阅读时应该有一种全句化的欣赏意识。


3. 鲁滨逊漂流记其实有2本,但我们通常阅读的都是第一部一直到他回到英国为止。结尾处简略叙述了他后来又回到孤岛的第二次冒险经历。但是第二本我自己没有读过,所以不列入讨论范围。



具体的进入阅读。

首先文章结构


Synopsis

ⅠCrusoe’s early life and adventures

1. indoor life

(P5--P.8 I can give no consent to it.)

2. first adventure

(P.8, It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose—P.14, it was a great while before he had any assurance that I was not drown’d.)

     second adventure

(P.14, But my ill fate push’d me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could resist—P.31, and with this stock I went on shoar in the Brasils.)

     life in Brazil

(P.31, I had not been long here—P.36 …I had to expect particular misfortunes to my self.)

Crusoe’s adventure on the island

1. Sailing (P.36, But I was hurried on—P.40, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.)

2. Living alone on the island

① arrival (moving goods from the ship, early arrangement)

(P.40, I was now landed –P.50, but things were of small use to me.)

②exploring (first stage of settlement)

(P.50, My Thoughts were now wholly employ’d about…--P.60, for having no more Ink I was forc’d to leave it off.)

③the journal

(P.60, The JOURNAL.—P.76 when I awak’d and found it was but a dream.)

④conversion

(P.76, I had alas!—P.83,than deliverance from affliction.)

⑤mastery of the nature (second stage of settlement, taming the animals, harvest from farming, making tools for living, reading bible, making canoe, making dresses…)

(P.83, But leaving this part—P.130, But now I come to a new scene of my life.)

⒊ living with the others

     living with Friday (discovery of other human beings, saving Friday’s life, living with him)

(P.130, It happen’d one day about noon…--P.194, in which I design’d to make my adventure.)

     living with Friday, Friday’s father and a Spanish

(P.194, when the settled season began to come in,--P.209, I found I had kept a true reckoning of years.

③ invading of an English ship and leaving the island

(P.209, It was no less than eight day…--P.234, from among the Moors of Sallee.)

Crusoe’s life after escaping from the island

⒈ back to Europe and general arrangement of his property

(P.234, In this Vessel—P.242, but two or three times.)

2. another adventure back to England

(P.242, It is true—P.256, and how the Rogues I left there had used them.)

3.final settlement and brief introduction to next adventure

(P.256 My true friend, the widow—P.268 the end)

 

 

 

接下来是关与 “Robinsonade”这个词其实原先出现在语当中,是一个叫Johann Gottfried Schnabel的人利用Robinson而造出的一个词。在英语当中这类小说还被称为desert island story,也就是所谓的荒岛小说。

 

 


 

HHUD SoSe 2007

TPS: Daniel Defoe

Dozent: Dr. Tobias Quast

Referentin: Wang, Yi

‘Robinsonades’ in Text & Film

 

Robinsonade:

Robinsonade is a literary genre that takes the name from the novel “Robinson Crusoe” by Daniel Defoe written in 1719.

The word “Robinsonade” was coined by the German writer Johann Gottfried Schnabel in the preface of his work—“Die Insel Felsenburg” in 1731.

 








Allein, ich höre leider! schon manchen, der nur einen Blick darauf schießen lassen, also raisonieren und fragen: Wie hält's, Landsmann! kann man sich auch darauf verlassen, daß deine Geschichte keine bloßen Gedichte, Lucianische Spaßstreiche, zusammengeraspelte Robinsonadenspäne und dergleichen sind? Denn es werfen sich immer mehr und mehr Skribenten auf, die einem neubegierigen Leser an diejenige Nase, so er doch schon selbst am Kopfe hat, noch viele kleine, mittelmäßige und große Nasen drehen wollen.

---------- Johann Gottfried Schnabel, Die Insel Felsenburg (1731)


 

Elements of Robinsonade:

































Isolation


 be deprived of comforts of western culture


Survival


 personal ability, nature of the island, supernatural agency


Nature vs. Nurture


 nature lack of any of the attributes of civilization, reproduce western culture


Exile


 be enforced to stay on the isolated island


Self-Exploration


 learn to cope with his situation


Dynamic


 change


Microcosmos


 life is exploited as a model of how life as a compound


 

Robinsonade vs. Utopian fiction:

asylum ←→ exile

outsider ←→ insider

 

Robinsonade in Text:

ⅠPre-Defoean:

Henry Neville, The Isle of Pines (1668)

H.J.C. von Grimmelshause, continuation des Abenteuerlichen Simplicissimi (1669)

Denis de Vairasse, Histoire des Sévarambes (1677)

Hendrik Smeeks, Krinke kesmes - Der holländische Robinson (1708/1721)

ⅡRobinsonade after Defoe — mid 19th century

⒈ Robinsonade as imitation of Robions Crusoe:

Robert Paltock, The Life and Adventures of Peter Wilkins (1751)

Ralph Morris, A Narrative of the Life and Astonishing Adventures of John Daniel (1751)

Der österreichische Robinson (1791)

Charles Reade, Foul Play (1848)

Joachim Heinrich Campe, Robinson der Jüngere (1779/80)

⒉ Revenons à la nature

Johann Gottfried Schnabel, Die Insel Felsenburg (1731)

The Hermit Philip Quarll (1727)

Gaspard Guilleaume de Beaurieu, L’ Élève de la Nature (1764)

⒊ Metaphysical Robinsonade

John Barnard, Ashton’s Memorial (1726)

The Voyage and Adventures of Thomas Randall, Cork, Pilot (1720)

Ⅲ Robinsonade from mid 19th century on

The negative Robinsonade

The absurd Robinsonade

Herman Melville, The Encantadas (1854)

Robert Louis Stevenson, The Islet (1886)

The Darwinian Robinsonade

H.G.Wells, Aepyornis Island (1900)

J. M. Barrie, The Admirable Crichton (1902)

The Beast Within

William Golding, Lord of the Flies (1954)

William Golding, Pincher Martin (1956)

A.      Bertram Chandler, The Cage (1957)

 

Film and TV Series

Robinson Crusoe on Mars (1964)

Gilligan's Island (1964-1967)

MacGyver (1985-1992)

Cast Away (2000)

Survivor (2000-present)

Lost (2004-present)

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